1. Machine Tool Parts
Lathe machine parts are machine tools that mainly use a turning tool to turn a rotating work piece. Drill bit, reamer, reamer, tap, die and knurling tool can also be used on the lathes machining. The application of lathe technology has brought great changes to the traditional manufacturing industry. It makes manufacturing a symbol of industrialization. And this technology continues to develop, and its application areas are also expanding. It plays an increasingly important role in the development of some important industries of the national economy. For example, IT, automobile, light industry, medical, etc.) The type of lathe is diverse. But turret lathe machine parts always include these. Headstock, exchange gearbox, feed box, slide box, tool post, tailstock, smooth screw, lead screw, bed, foot and cooling device.
2. CNC Lathe Main Axis
The main axis of the engine lathe is the axis that drives the work piece or tool rotation on the machine. Spindle components typically include spindles, bearings, and gears or pulleys), and the like. Some can support the transmission parts in the CNC machine, such as gears, pulse, transfer movement, and torque. CNC lathe parts suppliers use some of them to assemble the work piece, such as the axle. In addition to the planer, the main movement such as the pull bed, is a straight-moving machine, most type of lathe have a spindle component. The motion accuracy and structural stiffness of the spindle component is an essential factor. And it’s especially vital in determining processing quality and cutting efficiency.
2.1 Measuring the performance of the spindle component
(1) Rotate accuracy. It refers to the radial and axial beats that occur in the direction affecting the machining accuracy precision. This is mainly up to the manufacture and assembly quality of the spindle and bearings.
(2) moving, static relationship. It is mainly affected by the spindle’s bending stiffness, the stiffness and damping of the bearing.
(3) speed adaptability. The maximum speed and speed range are allowable. It is mainly determined in the structure and lubrication of the bearing, and heat dissipation conditions.
3. Machining CNC Lathe Axis
The spindle is a typical shaft part in all lathe machine parts. It is one of the key parts of the turret lathe. It transfers the rotating motion and torque to the work piece or tool through the furniture at the end of the spindle. In work, the spindle has to bear torque and bending moments. It also requires high rotation accuracy. Therefore, the manufacturing quality of the spindle is key. It will directly affect the working accuracy and service life of the entire engine lathe. You can choose mlsmold with professional quality assurance! A series of technical requirements are on the spindle parts drawing. Such as desired shape and size accuracy, position tolerance, surface roughness. Also, contact accuracy and heat treatment requirements, which ensure that machine tool parts have high rotation accuracy and rigidity. And it should have good wear resistance and dimensional stability.
The requirements for formulating the machining process of the machine tool spindle are as follows:
3.1 The Division of Processing Stages
Lathes machining of the spindle usually consists of three stages. Namely rough machining, semi-finishing, and precision machining operations. The division of each stage is roughly bounded by heat treatment. The division of stages and the rational arrangement of procedures are to ensure the quality of processing. In the end, we can achieve higher production efficiency and minimal production costs.
For spindles with general precision, fine grinding can be used as the final process. For the spindle of a precision machine tool, there should also be a finishing stage. This is to obtain a smaller surface roughness value. Sometimes it is also to get the desired shape and size, achieve higher dimensional accuracy and matching requirements.
3.2 Arrangement of Heat Treatment Process
Heat treatment process is an important process of spindle processing, it includes:
(1) Heat Treatment of the Blank.
Normalize The spindle should be normalized or annealed after forging. This can eliminate the forging internal stress. Also, it improves the metallographic structure and refines the grains. Meanwhile, it can reduce the hardness and improve machinability.
(2) Preliminary Heat Treatment.
Usually, machine tool parts suppliers adopt quenching and tempering fire normalizing treatment. And arrange it after rough machining. In this way, machine tool parts suppliers can obtain a uniform and fine-tempered sorbite structure. It enables the spindle to obtain a certain degree of hardness and strength and has good impact toughness. Besides, this can also eliminate rough machining stress. After quenching and tempering the precision machined parts, we make a metallographic inspection for the cutting pattern.
(3) Final Heat Treatment.
It is generally arranged before rough grinding. This is to improve the surface hardness of the spindle. While maintaining the toughness of the heart, this also enables the main journal or working surface. It’s to obtain high wear resistance and fatigue resistance. Ultimately, it can guarantee the working accuracy and service life of the spindle. The final heat treatment methods include tempering. And it’s after partial heating and quenching, carburizing and nitriding, etc. It depends on the material of the spindle. After carburizing and quenching, low temperature tempering treatment is also required.
(4) Qualitative Treatment.
For spindles with high precision requirements, we make qualitative treatment after quenching, tempering, or rough grinding. Qualitative treatment methods include low-temperature artificial aging and ice-cold treatment. This is to eliminate quenching stress or processing stress. Also, promote the transformation of participating austenite into martensite, and stabilize the metallographic structure. Finally, it improves the dimensional stability of the spindle and keeps it accurate for a long time. The normal precision CA6140 does not require qualitative processing.
3.3 Arrangement of the Processing Sequence
The processing sequence should be arranged to make each process and the whole process the most economical and reasonable.
Follow the principle of separating coarse and fine, roughing first and then finishing. Lathe Machine parts suppliers arrange each surface’s processing in the order of processing stages from coarse to fine. And gradually improve the accuracy of each surface and reduce its surface roughness value. At the same time, CNC machining manufacturers should also consider the following points.
(1) Arrange the deep hole machining of the spindle after the external rough turning.
In this way, use a more precise outer circle to locate and process deep holes. It is helpful to ensure the uniform wall thickness of deep hole processing. When the outer circle is roughed, we can use the center hole before drilling the deep hole as a unified reference.
(2) Arrange the processing of various secondary surfaces such as threads, keyways and screw holes.
After heat treatment, before rough grinding or after rough grinding. This can better ensure the mutual position accuracy. And it will not damage important finishing surfaces.
(3) Finish grinding of the outer circle should be arranged before the finish grinding of the inner taper hole.
This is because it is easier to ensure the mutual position accuracy between them. And to fine grind the inner cone hole by positioning on the outer circle.
(4) Arrange the processing of the positioning reference surface before the process.
In this way, it can gurantee the positioning accuracy of each process. Also, the processing of each process can meet the specified technical requirements.
(5) For precision spindles, it is necessary to follow the principle of separating coarse and fine.
First coarse and then fine. And subdivide the process of each stage.